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WEST SUMATERA FROM JAPANESE AGE TO THE REFORM AGE

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ROMUSHA ENERGY IN NAGARI DURIAN GADANG, SIJUNJUNG REGENCY DURING THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION 1942-1945

JAPANESE GOVERNMENT AND THE PACIFIC WAR

Socio-Political Situation of the Japanese Government

Japan's participation in world politics by involving itself in various conflicts between the Eastern and Western blocs, cannot be separated from changes in the socio-political situation in its own country. A very basic change occurred when the Meiji Restoration policy was implemented by the Emperor of Japan (Fenno Matsuhito). Initially the policy of self-isolation carried out by the Japanese Government under the Tokugawa regime since 1603, made Japan a traditional country that showed feudalistic characteristics. The policy was carried out by the Tokugawa regime on the consideration of protection (protection) of Japanese culture from the influence of Western culture. They are afraid that if Japan opens up to the West, their socio-cultural values will be affected. As a result, of course, Japan has become a nation that is lagging behind other countries that are already heading towards a modern state with the advancement of various technologies.

After Japan implemented the Meiji Restoration Policy, all the feudalistic features that gave privileges to the aristocrats were abolished. Japan's new orientation is to try to catch up, by sending its best sons to study in various Western countries. Since then, Japan has made various advances, especially modernization in the fields of education, industry, military, socio-economics and politics, which have been lagging behind Western countries. This Meiji restoration policy was carried out by Japan from 1868 - 1912, a relatively short period of time, but resulted in extraordinary progress for Japan. The progress that Japan experienced was the most extraordinary transformation that a nation had ever experienced in such a short period of time

The revolution in the field of education made Japan emerge as a developed country in Asia. in technology. Advances in technology brought enormous benefits to changes in the industrial sector, so that the progress achieved by Japan in the industrial sector matched the progress achieved by Western countries.

Likewise with Japan's political conditions, since they sent many of their best sons to study in the West, developments in the political field underwent considerable changes. A very basic change began in 1868, with the adoption of a political system known as the trias political. In order to implement the political system, Japan issued a law which contains the establishment of a State Council (Dajoka) as the basis for political policy in the country. The State Council is divided into three main groups, namely, legislative, executive and judicial

The big changes that occurred in Japanese society made it able to align itself with Western countries which had always considered the country only from the third class race group. It is remarkable that Japan has not abandoned its own socio-cultural values, even though they have absorbed various scientific advances from the West.

Since the progress experienced by Japan in various fields, especially industrial technology, they have begun to look at areas that can provide raw materials and markets. Besides the encouragement of the Japanese people's own expansionism spirit to prove to the world's eyes that they are not a lower class nation.

The first Japanese expansion was aimed at China, with the declaration of war on August 1, 1894, Japan officially launched its expansion attack into China. The war between Japan and China is then known as the Sino-Japanese war, in this war Japan can control China. After China can be defeated, then Japan directs its expansion to Russia. Japan's war with Russia ultimately resulted in only Taiwan for Japan, plus half of Sakhalin and Korea. This condition brought the Japanese confidence that they were able to be on par with Western countries, Japan's success in defeating Russia was also one of the drivers of the rise of the spirit of nationalism and a sense of nationality in the Asian region.

Japan's policy to make the southern and northern regions as areas of expansion of power and movement of Japanese population, is a policy that has been prepared by the Japanese people long ago. In the life of Japanese society, it is known as Nanshin-ron, if it is interpreted in Indonesian, if the Japanese population wants to be in more debt in their life, they are required to move to the south of Japan, namely the Southeast Asia region. This policy has been introduced since 1887 by Shiga Shigetaka in his work entitled Nanyo-Jiji.

These factors pushed the Japanese people to move a lot to Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Japan is open to the outside world, many of its inhabitants are also trying to find a new life in the southern region of Japan. Generally Japanese people who work in the petty trade sector and prostitutes, these are the ones who often send money to Japan, thus generating large enough foreign exchange to accelerate the progress process for the Japanese economy.

In the early 20th century, Japan experienced a "Taisho Democracy" overshadowed by the rise of Japanese expansionism and militarism. During World War I, Japan was on the side of the victorious Allies, so that Japan could expand its influence and territory. Japan continued to pursue expansionist politics by occupying Manchuria in 1931. Two years later, Japan left the League of Nations after coming under international condemnation for the occupation of Manchuria. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany, and joined Germany and Italy to form the Axis Powers in 1941.

se Navy, developed a very bold war strategy, by deploying the entire strength of his fleet to carry out two major operations.

The Japanese announced to all residents outside Japan to immediately return to Japan, for that the Japanese government sent several ships tasked with bringing residents back to Japan. So that before the attack many Japanese merchants in Indonesia left their property, for those who did not have time to leave Indonesia by the Dutch they were sent to Australia.

The displacement of the Japanese from the south, followed by Japanese naval attacks throughout the Asia Pacific region. The attack was carried out using 6 aircraft carriers (fighter aircraft carriers), 10 warships, 18 heavy cruisers, 20 light cruisers, 4 equipment carriers, 112 destroyers, 65 submarines and 2,274 fighter aircraft. The first force, namely 6 aircraft carriers, 2 warships, 11 destroyers and more than 1,400 fighter aircraft, on December 7, 1941, would attack suddenly the United States base at Pearl Harbor on the Hawaiian islands.

Japan Faces Pacific War

The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor caused quite a strong reaction against America's allies, as well as the Governor General of the Dutch East Indies Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer declared war on Japan, five hours after the attack was carried out. Army in Operation Southern, namely the attack on the Philippines and Malaya and Singapore, which will continue to Java. The troops deployed to Southeast Asia are 11 Infantry Divisions supported by 7 tank regiments and 795 fighter aircraft. The entire operation is planned to be completed in 150 days.

In their attack to the south, the Japanese army had entered the territory of the Dutch East Indies in early 1942. With disproportionate strength, namely four Dutch East Indies military divisions or about 40,000 personnel under the leadership of General H. Ter Poorten, against six to eight divisions of the Japanese army who led by General Hitoshi Imamura so the war between Japan and the Netherlands did not last long. In January-February, the Japanese gradually succeeded in occupying Tarakan, East Kalimantan and then advancing to Balikpapan, Pontianak, Samarinda and finally Banjarmasin.

The battle in Java ended when on March 1, 1942 the Japanese Sixteenth Army managed to land in three places at once, namely in Banten Bay, Eretan Wetan, West Java and Kragan, Central Java. A few days later, on March 7, 1942, General H. Ter Poorten had unconditionally surrendered in Kalijati Lembang. Beginning a new chapter in the history of the Indonesian nation's journey, initially the arrival of Japan was seen as a party that would assist Indonesia in realizing the ideals of liberating the Indonesian people from Dutch colonialism, but the Japanese policy turned out to be far more cruel than the Dutch way of treating the Indonesian people, so that sympathy changed. be hateful.

The Pacific War had a major impact on the independence movement in countries in East Asia, including Indonesia. The purpose of Japan's attack and occupation of the Netherlands-India was to control natural resources, especially oil and minerals to support Japan's war potential and support its industry. The natural resources in Java and Sumatra were designed by the Japanese as supply centers for all military operations in Southeast Asia. At the beginning of their arrival, Japan shouted Slogan 3 A, (Nipon Cahaya Asia, Nipon Asia Leader, Nipon Protector Asia) This slogan attracted interest and response from the nation's leaders, but in reality Japan continued to work for the glory and greatness of its nation and country.

Japan, in carrying out its politics and colonialism in Asia, made various mistakes that caused dissympathy from countries in Asia, as felt by the Indonesian people, three major mistakes by the Japanese military against the Indonesian people.

1. Forced labour: many Indonesian men were taken from among their families and sent all the way to Burma to do construction work and many other hard work in very bad conditions. Thousands of people are dead or missing.
2. Forced withdrawal: Japanese soldiers forcibly took food, clothing and other supplies from Indonesian families, without providing compensation. This led to famine and suffering during the war.
3. Forced slavery of women: many Indonesian women were made "comfort women" for the Japanese soldiers. In addition, the Japanese detained many Dutch civilians in detention camps under very bad conditions, and treated military prisoners of war in Indonesia in poor conditions.

This behavior was also felt by almost all countries occupied by Japan, this condition also caused Japan to be quickly conquered by the allied countries in World War II. In the context of Indonesia, the Japanese occupation has brought about extraordinary changes. The following are various policies of the Japanese occupation government in Indonesia.

* Political Field

In the early days of the occupation, Japan spread interesting propaganda. At first, Japan's attitude showed leniency, for example allowing the Red and White flag to be flown next to the Japanese flag, prohibiting the use of the Dutch language, and allowing the use of the Indonesian language in everyday life, and allowing singing the anthem Indonesia Raya.

Japan's lenient policy did not last long. General Imamura changed all his policies. Political activities were prohibited and all existing political organizations were dissolved. Instead, Japan formed new organizations. Of course, for Japan's own interests. The organizations established by Japan included the Tiga A, Putera, and Jawa Hokokai Movements.

Movement Three A

The Three A Movement was formed in March 1942 and was chaired by Mr. Syamsuddin. The Three A Movement consists of Nippon Light of Asia, Nippon Protector of Asia, and Nippon Pernimpin Asia. The purpose of this movement is to gather the nation's potential for mutual prosperity. In fact, the Tiga A Movement did not last long because it was deemed ineffective by the Japanese so it was disbanded, instead: the Putera (People's Power Center) was formed.

People's Power Center (Putera)

On March 1, 1943 Japan formed Putera. This movement was led by a triumvirate of figures, namely Ir. Soekamo, Drs. Moh. Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara, and K.H. Mr. Mansour. For the leaders of Indonesia, Putera is committed to building and reviving everything that the Dutch imperialists have destroyed. As for Japan, Putera aims to concentrate all the potential of the Indonesian people in order to assist in its war effort. Son is more useful for the Indonesian people than for Japan. The son directed the people's attention to independence rather than to the Japanese war effort. Therefore, the Japanese then formed the Java Hokokai (Javanese Devotional Association).

Java Hokokai (Javanese Devotional Association)

In March 1944 the Japanese government formed the Java Hokokai. Jawa Hokokai was declared an official government organization so that the leadership was directly held by Gunseikan. This association has three basics, namely self-sacrifice, strengthening brotherhood, and doing something with evidence. Jawa Hokokai has duties, among others, to mobilize the people to collect rice, scrap metal, taxes, and plant jatropha as raw material for lubricants for Japan. On September 5, 1943, the Cuo Sangi In (Advisory Body) was formed at the suggestion of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo. Chairman Cuo Sangi In is held by lr. Sukarno. The task of this agency is to make proposals to the government and to answer government questions regarding actions that need to be taken by the military government.

* Economics

At the beginning of the Japanese occupation, the Indonesian economy was paralyzed, vital objects such as mining and industry were scorched by the Allies. To normalize the situation, Japan carried out a lot of production activities. All economic activities are directed to meet the needs of war. For example, by building a weapons factory and requiring the people to plant jatropha trees. Therefore, Japan implements the autarky system. The autarky system is that each region is expected to fulfill its own needs. To build war facilities, Japan needed a lot of manpower. The manual labor used for forced labor is called romusha. Romusha's life is very pathetic. They live in misery, poverty, hunger, and death is not uncommon. In addition to romusha, Japan also exploits natural resources, especially coal and oil.

* Social Affairs

During the Japanese era, many Indonesians were forced to become romusha. They were forced to work hard without being paid any wages or food. As a result, many priests died and contracted disease. Due to the poverty experienced by these priests, there was a new group called the kere or gembel group. Japan also regulates the system of social stratification in society. Social stratification during the Japanese occupation consisted of the upper or first group (Japan), the second group (natives), and the third group (Foreign East).

* Military Field

In order to strengthen its position in the Pacific War, Japan mobilized young people to be fostered in military training. Japan formed semi-military organizations and military organizations, such as Heiho and Peta, besides that Japan also formed semi-military organizations such as Seinendan, Fujinkai, Keibodan, Suishintai, Gakukotai and Jibakutai.

Based on the story above, it can be seen that the arrival of Japan to all regions in Southeast Asia was more due to their high need for natural resources, especially oil and coal. This condition was actually caused by America's decision to force Japan out of its isolation policy, thus pushing Japan to become a country that is open to the outside world, especially the west. This condition pushed Japan to become an advanced industrial country, so that it could have a strong war army

The arrival of Japan to Asian countries, especially Indonesia, has had a tremendous impact on various people's lives, both for the elite and ordinary people. The elite felt that the arrival of Japan would accelerate Indonesia's independence, while the public had been used by Japan as a romusha or reserve force prepared to face the allies in World War II.

* Japan's need for Romusha

During Japan's reign in Asia, they needed a lot of manpower, this condition was because when they captured almost all the countries in Southeast Asia and the Korean Peninsula they were constantly facing resistance from countries that had previously occupied the region. The first step taken by Japan was an effort to erase western culture that had permeated the entire region, secondly, Japan was dredging up strategic natural resources in each of the Asian countries that had been controlled by Japan. This supply of natural resources was used to finance and fuel Japanese warships which were currently facing the Allies in East Asia and the Pacific.

The extent of the Japanese occupation area, making Japan require such a large workforce. This manpower was needed to build fortifications, makeshift airfields, cellars, highways and bridges, with the ultimate goal of helping Japan in dealing with the Allies. This workforce is taken from areas that have a fairly dense population, such as China and Indonesia as well as other countries that were colonized by Japan. In subsequent developments these workers were forced to complete all the work given by Japan in a short time, seeing the suffering they experienced while working, these workers were more popularly known as Romuhsa.

Romusha can be interpreted as a volunteer worker who does work as a laborer. In the understanding of the Javanese community, romusha is more defined as a coolie who is mobilized by the Japanese to work on large projects generally for the development of Japanese infrastructure. The inhabitants of Java Island who were recruited by the Japanese army as romusha generally came from ordinary farmers, who were provoked by the Japanese announcement.

The announcements made by Japan, delivered by the lurah and their village officials, were used by Japan as a medium of propaganda and intimidation so that many youths were attracted or forced to follow Japanese policies in war. Before leaving, the youths were promised a salary, food and health insurance for as long as they were employed by the Japanese, so that some volunteered to register as workers, but most of them were forced to join as Japanese workers. Besides that, in recruiting Japanese romusha, it also spreads information about looking for young people who will be sent to school by the Japanese, this propaganda has also become an effective tool for Japan in recruiting romusha.

Romusha who came from the island of Java, approximately 300,000 people were sent to various countries in Southeast Asia, 70,000 of whom were in a sad condition and ended in death. If we add the figures from other regions and countries, we can imagine that the number of victims who died from romusha must have been very large. It all started with Japan's ambition to conquer Asia, resulting in this humanitarian disaster.

The Indonesian people, although only 3.5 years under Japanese rule, still left extraordinary bitter memories. Romuhsa and Iugun Yanfu proved to be one of the greatest human tragedies for this country. As seen in Muara Cibadur, Bayah Beach, Banten. Bayah was known as a coal producer at that time, and the Land of the Rising Sun was very enthusiastic about exploiting the coal used to finance the war and the main energy in moving all Japanese warships, to be able to face allies commanded by the US.

In addition, Bayah coal is also used by Japan to fuel Japanese trains, ships and factories. To carry out a large-scale exploitation in Bayah, the Japanese army is estimated to have killed approximately 93,000 romusha. Most of the romusha were imported from Central Java, such as Purworejo, Kutoarjo, Solo, Purwodadi, Semarang, Yogyakarta, and others. The romusha were ordered to drill coal mines at Gunung Madur and build the Bayah-Seketi railway, in the hope that the coal produced in Bayah would soon reach the sea.

Currently in Bayah there are still some relics of the Romusha era such as the Romusha Well, the train station, the caves of former coal mines in the Japanese colonial era, Romusha graves, Romusha food. Besides being employed on the island of Java, there were also Romushas who were employed by the Japanese from their homelands, such as Romusha from East Nusa Tenggara who was sent by the Japanese to Bintuni, Papua to work on the Japanese fortifications.

Romusha in fact not only work in the country where they come from. The romusha were also taken abroad by the Japanese army. This is evidenced by the large number of romusha mainly from Java who are employed abroad, as revealed in Karja Wiredja's life journey leaving his village in Matukara, Banjarnegara, Central Java, to become romusha in Thailand. "At that time the village head said we could join Nippon," so the innocent young man set out to become the foreman of the construction of the 415-kilometer railway between Thailand and Burma.

The railroad project involved 45,000 Indonesian romusha, 85,000 from Malaysa (Chinese, Indian and Malay), 180,000 from Burma and 12,000 Japanese soldiers who were in charge of supervising and managing the work. In addition to romusha, the project also employs 68,000 prisoners of war from various nationalities, mainly Britain, the Netherlands and Australia. of all, 100,000 of them died from both malaria and the brutality of Japanese soldiers.

The Japanese army also built a bridge in Thailand connecting Thailand with Burma. In working on the project, the Japanese army involved as many as 61,000 POWs from the Allied Forces, consisting of Dutch, British, Australian and American soldiers. No less than 16,000 of the prisoners of war workers died and were buried in foreign cemeteries around the bridge site. This number does not include 200,000 "romusha" workers from Asia, including Indonesia - of which around 80,000 people became victims in the construction of the "death bridge". ' The tens of thousands of "romusha" remaining, remain buried as part of the mystery of the ferocity of World War II - no one knows, and no one has ever been reported as safe back home.

The building iron used to build the bridge was brought from the port of "Tandjoeng Prioek", Jakarta. After the bridge was completed by Romusha, the Japanese were only able to use the building for 21 months to carry logistics from Thailand to Burma. The Bridge building was destroyed by the Allied Army, with the most advanced weapon of the time, known as the "Revolutionary Radio Controlled Azimuth Only (AZON) Bomb.

In the context of West Sumatra, the Japanese army also sent many romusha to work in this area, one of the areas that became the center of romusha work in West Sumatra was in the Sijunjung area, namely building a railroad crossing from Logas Sijunjung Regency, West Sumatra Province to Logas Riau Province. which is 220 kilometers away. More than 6000 Romusha people died from being buried by rocks in the Ngalau Cigak Nagari Silokek area. Based on historical records, many Romusha, especially those from Java, died while building the railroad between Muaro Sijunjung and Loge. Romusha workers who work in an area also involve residents around the area, but the suffering they experience is much lighter than the romusha who are imported from outside the area.

The story above assumes that Japan's need for manpower is very high, because the battlefield of the Japanese army is very wide, besides that the enemies that the Japanese army must face are very many, this condition causes Japan to move quickly to meet all their war needs. As a result, Japan in working on a development project or opening a mining area always uses a large number of people with the hope that the projects they build can be completed as quickly as possible with the aim of helping them in dealing with the allied forces.

The romusha employed by the Japanese, generally came from the area they occupied. This condition causes many romusha to come from Indonesia, especially from the Javanese ethnic group, this situation is due to the fact that at that time the population in Indonesia was quite dense, especially the population on the island of Java, so that many romushas taken from Java were sent to almost all Japanese occupation areas. In addition to the indigenous population, Japan also made use of allied captive soldiers from the Netherlands, England, Australia and others who were employed by Japan in building projects for Japan's needs in the war.

Besides men, the Japanese army also needed beautiful women who were used to satisfy the "lust of the Japanese army" or better known as Jugun Yanfu Jugun Yanfu was taken by Japan from all the countries it occupied so that the victims of Jugun Yanfu were in Korea, China, Malaysia. , Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam, Indonesia, India:, Indo, and other Pacific island women. The number of Jugun Yanfu during the war was estimated at between 20,000 and 30,000 women, but according to the few surviving Jugun Ianfu this number seems to be the lowest estimate.

Jugun Ianfu in the early stages were collected or taken in conventional ways. Among them were through advertisements in newspapers published in Japan and the Japanese colonies in Korea, Manchukuo, and mainland China. Most of those who responded to these advertisements were prostitutes by offering their services voluntarily. There was also the economic pressure of being sold by their own families to the military, but these activities quickly stopped especially from Japan, because of the reaction against it. In the end, the Minister of Foreign Affairs refused to issue travel visas for Japanese prostitutes, feeling that it would taint the name of the Empire of Japan.

The policy that has been set by the Japanese government has made it difficult for the military to find women who work as sex workers. To overcome this, the Japanese military then looked for comfort women outside Japan, especially from Korea and China. Many women were lied to and tricked into joining the Jugun Ianfu dormitory. Others were kidnapped by Japanese soldiers on the battlefield. Meanwhile, Jugun Ianfu from Indonesia was obtained by Japan through fraud and deprivation, Japan through accomplices in the villages conveyed information about sending Indonesian women to school, so as to attract women to follow the Japanese propaganda.

In a testimony written by a woman who was a victim of Jugun Yanfu in Yogyakarta, there is a sad story that must be accepted by the victims of Jugun Yanfu during the Japanese occupation. According to Aminah, one of those who has experienced Japanese sexual services, "When the Japanese entered Indonesia, not long after that I and dozens of other women were taken to Kalimantan and put into camps. There we had to serve the Japanese military sexual desires at night and afternoon, evening until morning changing civilians".

Aminah is required to serve the passions of dozens to dozens of Japanese soldiers. There are no exceptions, even when they are menstruating (Before going to Kalimantan to become a sex slave, he must be examined by a doctor and declared healthy and clean. After receiving the certificate, he was only forced to join the Japanese military camp on the island of Kalimmtan There are 22 rooms filled with young women in the Camp, most of them are children and teenagers. In the day and night, the Jugun Yanfu have to serve 10-15 people. They have to endure this suffering for more than three years as slaves to lust.

The Japanese army is known as one of the units that really need women in their war activities, the main factor that drives them to need women is because the spirit and fighting power of the Japanese army is very high so that the presence of women is expected to be able to maintain the spirit they have. This condition caused the Japanese to need Jugun Yanfu which were generally taken from occupied areas and from Europeans who did not have time to escape when Japanese troops entered their territory.

Japanese Policy Against Romusha

The Japanese population which lasted from 1941-1945, was a dark period in the history of people's lives who had been made by Japan as romusha and Jugun Yanfu, they felt suffering that is difficult for us who live today to imagine. Based on historical sources, we find the number of priests who died is very large, because all construction carried out by Japan must be completed in a short time, so that Japan exploits labor to be able to complete the construction as soon as possible.

The Japanese pattern in taking Romusha, usually they are directly taken by the Japanese to their areas of origin, usually in recruiting them the Japanese use the issue of going to school or looking for new jobs. This condition has encouraged many youths from villages, especially on the island of Java, to participate and register when Japan conducts propaganda, usually in carrying out Japanese propaganda it also involves village heads and village officials, thus accelerating this recruitment process.

The behavior of the Japanese Army when facing Romusha was very cruel and harsh, it was illustrated by historical records submitted by a Romusha who came from Java who was sent by Japan to Burma. Confessions of Ngadiyo, male born in Gunung Kidu1, Yogyakarta in 1912. He was one of the victims of romusha. Ngadiyo did forced labor in Singapore, was transferred to the Burma-Siam railway line. According to him, "We are injected to stay healthy, but the food is so little. Many people die of starvation." He said that the food ration for four people is actually only enough for one person. There are also those who die from dry or wet beriberi, as well as malaria or coughing up blood. "Every day three people die, then it becomes five to ten people. Two hundred people who left with me from Singapore, maybe only 70 people survived.

The fate of the month of Karja was different. In July 1943, the innocent young man set out to become the foreman of the construction of the 415-kilometer railway between Thailand and Burma. The pay, two cents a day. For a month of work, he earns six rupiahs.

The same suffering was also expressed by romusha who came from other countries such as Tom Uren, who came from Australia. He said he wanted to wipe out all Japanese people from the face of this earth, because the suffering was so bitter when he became a romusha The same story also happened to Harry Rynenberg, who became a Japanese prisoner of war in Indonesia, Rynenberg represented hundreds of thousands of romusha in Thailand-Burma, as well as women from China, Korea, Indonesia, England, Australia and the Netherlands who were used as comfort women who had to serve - to be precise - raped by more of ten Japanese soldiers.

In the Indonesian context, the Japanese army's policies towards romusha actually varied, from one romusha to another. As illustrated in the construction of the rubber fire road, between Logas in Muaro Sijunjung and Loge in Riau Province, which is approximately 220 kilometers away. for romusha who come from outside the Minangkabau ethnicity, the Japanese usually act much more cruel and harsh than the natives, besides that the type of work that will be done by outsiders is much heavier than the local community. Indigenous people, or ethnic Minangs, were mostly tasked with delivering Japanese logistics from Muaro Sijunjung to the interior, clearing shrubs, looking for wood, while romusha from Java and outside Minang were usually given heavy work such as lifting rail iron, installing bridges, splitting cliff.

Romusha from Java and outside the Minang ethnic group was given heavy work by the Japanese, while in food and health facilities, the Japanese did not receive adequate attention. Japan implements a policy that the romusha are only fed 2 times a day, at 12 noon and 5 pm, outside of that the romusha are welcome to find their own food. The small rice rations turned out to be not enjoyed by all the romusha, because those who were entitled to food rations had to have received a special sign from the foreman, then the soup kitchen people gave them food.

Different conditions are faced by romusha who come from local ethnicities, besides they get jobs that are not too heavy, about eating they are given the freedom by the Japanese to cook food ingredients that they have brought from their respective villages, so that their suffering is much less than that of the Japanese. with romusha from outside Minang. In the health sector, Japan does not pay attention to both the Javanese and local ethnic romusha, for those who are sick they have to fend for themselves to find medicine. However, romusha who come from local ethnicities are generally only 15 days after that they enter the next group again, when they are sick they are quickly back off duty and can resume treatment in their area.

Romusha who could not bear the pain, eventually died, by the Japanese this body was not buried, but washed away into the rivers around the location of Romusha. So that until now there is no romusha grave found, there are only traces of where romusha was buried, but there is no real evidence that justifies the area as a romusha burial ground. This condition causes around Logos and Lodge we cannot find burial sites containing traces of romusha.

There is even more sadistic what the Japanese soldiers have done to the romusha, according to information from one source who tells that there is one romusha who is seriously ill or can be said to be dying, in such conditions the Japanese soldiers ordered him to bury him, because it was considered a burden in his life. continue work.

Likewise, what was experienced by many women who were victims of the policies implemented by Japan, was not much different from that of romusha. Women being made as Jugun Ianfu was an urgent need by Japanese soldiers and civil servants when they carried out occupations throughout the Asian region. In almost all areas occupied by the Japanese, the women were forced by the Japanese to become Jugun Ianfu

The Korean peninsula region has one voice to urge the Japanese government to compensate for all its actions against women in their area. The insistence voiced by the government and NGOs in the region has forced the Japanese government on July 18, 1995, to officially issue an apology for the cruelty of the Japanese army in the Asia Pacific war.

In the context of Indonesia, Jugun Ianfu is something that is still dark, because the Japanese population is so short that it is difficult to find written data that can describe the suffering of Jugun Ianfu. In 1993 the Minister of Social Affairs issued an announcement stating that the Indonesian women who were made Jugun Ianfu needed to be found and recorded for the purpose of demanding the amount of spoils of war that Japan had to pay.

This policy brought a bright hope for former Jugun Ianfu who lived in appalling conditions. Based on data from LBH Yogyakarta they noted that on September 13, 1993, 300 Jugun Ianfu had reported about the Japanese atrocities they had experienced. Since then, the dark history suffered by Jugun Ianfu during the Japanese colonial period began to surface.

Momoye is a story that can describe how the policies that Japan applied to Indonesian women who were made Jugun Ianfu. The woman who was originally Mardiyem was forced by Japan to become Jugun Ianfu, to succeed and run her business, the Japanese changed her name to momoye which gave the impression that she was a woman of Japanese descent.

Momoye or Mardiyern became Jugun Ianfu in Telawang, an area located on the outskirts of Banjarmasin. In the book he tells how the Japanese treat him and how the process of leaving for Telawang. Japan through its accomplices, especially Indonesians who work for Japan, provided information that they needed people who could play plays and sing. This information is interesting: Mardiyem's attention, especially when this information is accompanied by the arrival of the "Panja Soerja" group, thus giving Mardiyem confidence that he will really be involved in the arts group.

Mardiyem's journey from Yogyakarta to Surabaya, from Surabaya then continued to Borneo. It was in Borneo that Mardiyem realized that he was not recruited to be a singer or a playwright, but a woman who was being groomed to become a Jugun Ianfu. From that moment on, he began to feel the suffering and pain he suffered as Jugun Ianfu, this condition lasted until Japan lost.

During his time as Jugun Ianfu Mardiyem never received any money, because the Telawang administrators promised to hand over the money they earned based on the coupons and tickets they had. However, when Japan lost in World War II, they never received the promised money. In 1953, Mardiyem had returned to Yogyakarta and married a husband who understood his past history.
 
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